Belousova A, Rudenko E, Zanin A, Makarova A. RESOURCES OF THE UNDERGROUND WATERS OF RUSSIA, THEIR USE AND QUALITY// 17th International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conference SGEM2017
Vol. 17, issue 33, SGEM2017 Conference Proceedings, ISBN 978-619-7408-27-0 / ISSN 1314-2704 (2017) pp. 339-346 Published by STEF92 Technology (WoS, Scopus) DOI: 10.5593/sgem2017H/33
As numerous studies show, changes in the environment at the end of the 20th century have become global ones. This means that the buffer capacity of the Earth, and the planetary boundaries have been subjected to a massive impact of the different human activities for several decades. Achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals, adopted by the UN, is becoming more difficult to fulfill. Chemical pollution directly or indirectly affects the quality of natural resources, including water. Providing the population with clean drinking water in the conditions of existing technogenic pollution is a serious problem all over the world. It is important to understand that polluted water impacts human health, results in the accumulation of water-soluble toxic components in vegetation and other living organisms. The existing biogeochemical cycle of water links all geospheres of the Earth. It should be pointed out, that the groundwater runoff from contaminated areas is significantly underestimated, although it is the groundwater that is the secondary source of pollution, transferring dissolved substances to different distances, depending on natural climatic conditions and water-bearing rocks. Human activities related to the exploitation of groundwater contribute to the acceleration of the penetration of surface contaminations into the underlying aquifers due to the partial permeability of waterproof layers, the proof of this being the fact that surface and groundwater of different aquifers contact each other. The article considers the current state and use of groundwater resources on the territory of the Russian Federation. In addition, the sustainability of groundwater resources under the anthropogenic load and methods for its assessment and subdivision are described using indicators and indices of their sustainability. The taxonometry was formed from sub-regional level to the one of the federal districts of the Russian Federation based on the subdivision of the degree of the anthropogenic load on groundwater resources and the degree of their stability, which made it possible to compare regions among themselves both within the country as a whole and within federal districts. The relationship between the degree of anthropogenic impact and the stability of groundwater resources for each of the subjects of the country was defined, after that “the degree of favorable conditions for groundwater resources” was established. The ecological condition of ground water at centralized water intakes for domestic and drinking water supply was calculated based on pollution risks indexes, according to the methodology proposed, taking into account the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) and the hazard class of specific pollutants. The corresponding maps were drawn that illustrate the subdivision and location of contaminated water intakes.