A. Buber, M. Bolgov, V. Buber. Statistical and Water Management Assessment of the Impact of Climate Change in the Reservoir Basin of the Volga–Kama Cascade on the Environmental Safety of the Lower Volga Ecosystem// Appl. Sci. 2023, Volume 13, Issue 8,4768
When managing water resources in order to provide water to consumers, a number of consequences arise related to the violation of the hydrological regime due to the regulation of flow by reservoirs. The second factor is possible climate change. These changes can negatively (or positively) affect the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. To reduce the impact on the environment, it is necessary to determine the nature and indicators of changes in the hydrological regime, calculate quantitative estimates of these indicators and ranges of acceptable values, and develop release rules that ensure compliance with these ranges with a given probability. To manage the water resources of the Volga and Kama Rivers, the main ecological task is to flood the floodplain meadows, to maintain the conditions of natural reproduction of fish on the Lower Volga, including the Volga River delta and the Volga–Akhtuba floodplain. In addition, it is necessary to meet with sufficient reliability the requirements of energy in the summer–autumn and winter low-water periods and water transport during the navigation period. The task of optimal management is to find such solutions in years of different water content that ensure the well-being of the main water users with a given probability and do not disturb the Lower Volga ecosystem. This article presents the research of the water resources state of the water resource system of the Volga and Kama river basins. A statistical analysis of the hydrological series of the observed inflow for 1916–2020 was performed, and the inflow change point (1979) was found by the Bayesian method of estimation. A statistically significant difference between the average inflow values of two series (1916–1978, 1979–2020) was proved using a two-sample Student’s test. The seasonal parameters of the reliability curves were calculated based on the three-parameter Kritsky and Menkel distribution. For these two series, water resource optimization calculations (using Excel Solver) were performed, and the reliability of fulfilling the requirements of water users was determined; for the series 1916–1978, an alternative solution was found in favor of fisheries, and an analysis of the results was also performed. The methodology used in the research allows finding trade-off solutions in the favor of different water users (ecology, agriculture and fisheries, water supply, hydropower, navigation, etc.) and is based on the use of multi-criteria optimization methods and the trade-offs theory. As a result of the research, new knowledge was obtained about the hydrological situation in the basin of the Volga–Kama reservoir cascade in connection with climate change.