Shahgedanova M; Afzal M; Hagg W ... Rybak O et al. Emptying Water Towers? Impacts of Future Climate and Glacier Change on River Discharge in the Northern Tien Shan, Central Asia // WATER v.12 №3
Том: 12 Выпуск: 3 Номер статьи: 627 Опубликовано: MAR 2020 DOI: 10.3390/w12030627
Funding: This work was funded by the UK—Kazakhstan Newton—al Farabi Fund (Grant No 172722855, “Climate Change, Water Resources and Food Security in Kazakhstan”) and grant No AP05133077 from the Ministry of Science and Education of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The work on glaciological modelling by Rybak and Yaitskaya was supported by the RFBR grant No 20-05-00681.
Impacts of projected climate and glacier change on river discharge in ﬁve glacierized catchments in the northern Tien Shan, Kazakhstan are investigated using a conceptual hydrological model HBV-ETH. Regional climate model PRECIS driven by four diﬀerent GCM-scenario combinations (HadGEM2.6, HadGEM8.5, A1B using HadCM3Q0 and ECHAM5) is used to develop climate projections. Future changes in glaciation are assessed using the Blatter–Pattyn type higher-order 3D coupled ice ﬂow and mass balance model. All climate scenarios show statistically signiﬁcant warming in the 21st Century. Neither projects statistically signiﬁcant change in annual precipitation although HadGEM and HadCM3Q0-driven scenarios show 20–37% reduction in July–August precipitation in 2076–2095 in comparison with 1980–2005. Glaciers are projected to retreat rapidly until the 2050s and stabilize afterwards except under the HadGEM8.5 scenario where retreat continues. Glaciers are projected to lose 38–50% of their volume and 34–39% of their area. Total river discharge in July–August, is projected to decline in catchments with low (2–4%) glacierization by 20–37%. In catchments with high glacierization (16% and over), no signiﬁcant changes in summer discharge are expected while spring discharge is projected to increase. In catchments with medium glacierization (10–12%), summer discharge is expected to decline under the less aggressive scenarios while ﬂow is sustained under the most aggressive HadGEM8.5 scenario, which generates stronger melt.
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